Nutrigenomics DNA tests we offer
Nutrient Core Report
This test analyses how gene variants can affect food tolerance (and intolerance), appetite control and blood sugar balance, vitamin and mineral needs, detoxification ability, and susceptibility to inflammation and infection.
Nutrient Core will help you understand the fundamental genetic interactions with diet and lifestyle and indicate whether specific functions require further genetic testing. It includes genes that have been shown to affect:
food response – coeliac disease (gluten) and lactose intolerance
caffeine – sensitivity and metabolism
microbiome – diversity
vitamin need – vitamins A, B9 (folate), B12 (cobalamin), C, D and K
blood pressure – sodium-potassium balance
detoxification – glutathione
metabolism – blood sugar control (insulin), appetite (leptin)
inflammation – specific (infection response) and systemic
Food Response: HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1 and LCT
Caffeine: CYP1A2 and ADORA2A
Vitamins: BCO1, MTHFR, FUT2, TCN2, SLC23A1, GC, VDR and VKORC1
Blood Pressure: ACE and AGT
Metabolism: FTO, TCF7L2, PGC1A and LEPR
Inflammation: TNF and IFNG
Nervous System Report
The nervous system supports the transmission of messages around the mind and body, enabling an individual to respond to their environment. A neurotransmitter is a molecule that carries signals between neurons and across nerve junctions (synapses). Excitatory neurotransmitters increase the likelihood a neuron will fire a signal, while inhibitory neurotransmitters have the opposite effect. In order for us to interact effectively with our environment these must remain in balance.
Symptoms of neurotransmitter imbalance can include: mood imbalances, depression, mania, attention deficit and obsessive compulsive disorders, addictive behaviours, motor control disruption, anger, aggression and restlessness.
It analyses gene variants that impact serotonin (contentment) and melatonin (sleep), dopamine (motivation), noradrenaline and adrenaline (fight or flight) and the GABA which is critical for relaxation. It provides detailed recommendations for nutritional support to alleviate symptoms and to optimise mental health.
Serotonin: 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, MAOA, QDPR, SLC18A1 (VMAT), VDR and TPH
Melatonin: ASMT and MTNR1B
Dopamine: COMT, DRD2, MAOB, SLC6A3 (DAT), TH and VDR
Adrenergic: ADRB2, COMT, DBH, MAOA, PNMT, SLC6A2 (NET) and SLC18A1
Thyroid: DIO1 and DIO2
Inflammation: FKBP5, IFNG and TNF
Pharmacogenomics: CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and OPRM1
Thyroid Balance Report
The thyroid is an endocrine gland in the neck that produces two thyroid hormones – triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin. Thyroid hormones control the metabolism of almost every cell in the body, with wide-ranging metabolic, developmental and cardiovascular effects. Thyroid activity is altered by genetics and environmental factors: nutrients (tyrosine, selenium and iodine), toxins (fluoride, chlorine or moulds), psychosocial or physical stressors, bacteria and viruses. Imbalance can result in HPT axis (Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid) dysfunction, autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) such as Graves’ and Hashimoto’s, thyroid sensitive cancers (although rare), and impact transport, activation and response to thyroid hormones. Deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in many different symptoms. Hypothyroidism (under activity) can cause weight gain, fatigue, low libido, cold intolerance, dry skin, constipation and depression. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism (over activity) include anxiety, heat intolerance, heart palpitations, insomnia and weight loss. The Thyroid Balance report analyses the genes involved in the thyroid hormone lifecycle: synthesis – centrally (in the thyroid) and in activation in peripheral tissues, transport and metabolism, processing of cofactors (vitamins D and A) and inhibitors (stress and toxins). It also examines genes that confer susceptibility to inflammation and autoimmunity.
Methylation is the process of adding methyl groups, consisting of one carbon and three hydrogen atoms, to other molecules. It is involved in almost every metabolic process in the body, occurring billions of times every second in our cells and contributing to numerous crucial functions.
Imbalances in methylation – too little or too much – can increase susceptibility to chronic health conditions such as heart disease, circulatory problems, chronic fatigue, infertility, immune and autoimmune conditions, food and chemical sensitivities, and mood and psychiatric disorders, as well as cancer and premature ageing.
The Methylation test examines genes involved in five sub-cycles – folate, methionine, neurotransmitter, transsulphuration and urea. Genetic results will inform whether someone is likely to be poor or overly efficient at processing cofactors – B6, B9 (folate) and B12 (cobalamin), methionine, betaine, choline, zinc and magnesium; and inhibitors – chemicals, moulds, drugs, hormones and heavy metals and provide guidance on how to support or bypass bottlenecks or weaknesses.
Folate Cycle: DHFR, FOLH1, MTHFD1, MTHFR, RFC1, SHMT1 and TYMS
Methionine Cycle: AHCY, BHMT, FUT2, MAT1A, MTR, MTRR, PEMT and TCN2
Neurotransmitter Cycle: COMT, MAOA, MAOB, QDPR and VDR
Transsulphuration Cycle: CBS, CTH, GSS, MUT and SUOX
Urea Cycle: NOS and SOD
Histamine Intolerance Report
Histamine has many functions: as a neurotransmitter, communicating messages to and from the brain and nervous system; triggering the release of stomach acid to help digestion; and it can also be released after stress, injury or allergic reaction as part of the body’s immune response.
Histamine intolerance is the body’s reaction to an imbalance between accumulated histamine and the capacity to break it down. When the body is unable to break histamine down quickly enough it becomes toxic. Symptoms of histamine toxicity may include skin irritation or breathing difficulties (mimicking an allergic reaction), digestive problems, headaches, insomnia and anxiety.
The Histamine Intolerance test analyses the genes and nutrients needed to breakdown and remove histamine, showing where disruptions occur and how to support optimal function. Diamine oxidase (DAO), which primarily breaks down histamine in the gut, can be impaired by gastrointestinal disease or ‘blockers’ such as alcohol, smoked or fermented foods, black tea, green tea and some medications such as non steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (ibuprofen or aspirin). Insufficient histamine-n-methyl- transferase (HNMT) in the nervous system and lungs can also lead to histamine overload.
The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is best known for its role in lipid (fat) metabolism by helping to remove cholesterol from the bloodstream. It can exist in three main forms known as E2, E3 and E4.
The E4 form of the APOE gene has been associated with increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides and susceptibility to cardiovascular disease – heart attacks or strokes due to atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and Alzheimer’s disease. However, having an E4 genotype is one of many risk factors and does not mean you will develop any of these conditions.
In addition to APOE, this test examines genes involved in methylation, inflammation, toxicity and neuroprotection, to enable individuals to take preventative action by adopting personalised nutrition and lifestyle changes to optimise their future, long term health.